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Introduction to Managerial Accounting
Professor Savita Sahay
Master Budgets (Chapter 6)
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What is a Budget? 0:23
Advantages of Budgeting: 1:13
The Master Budget: 2:24
Components of Master Budget: 2:53
Sales Budget: 4:36
Practice Problem #1: 5:24
— Preparation of a SALES budget
— Solution: 6:03
The Production Budget: 6:27
Practice Problem #2: 8:07
— Preparation of a PRODUCTION budget
— Solution: 8:45
Practice Problem #3: 11:41
— Sales, production, and cost of goods sold
amounts to be reported on the budgeted income statement
A budget is a detailed quantitative plan for a proposed course of action over a specified time period in the future. Operating budgets ordinarily cover a one year period corresponding to a company’s fiscal year. Many companies divide their annual budget into four quarters (this is known as the budget period). The budgeting process involves planning and control. Planning involves developing objectives and preparing various budgets to achieve those objectives. Control involves investigating the deviations from the budgets and taking corrective actions for the future.
The advantages of budgeting include converting the firm’s strategy into short term goals to be achieved during the next year and helps define the company’s goals and objectives. It helps promote coordination and communication among departments within the company and provides a framework for judging performance. It motivates managers and other employees and helps uncover potential bottlenecks early and find solutions. It is a means of allocating resources among divisions and helps manager and plan for cash requirements.
The master budget consists of a set of operating budgets and a set of financial budgets that detail an organization’s financial plans for a specific accounting period, generally a year. Operating budgets are plans used in daily operations and are the basis for financial budgets. Financial budgets, in turn, are projections of financial results for the accounting period.
A sales budget is a detailed plan, expressed in both units and dollars, that identifies the product (or service) sales expected in an accounting period. It is prepared before any other budgets due to the importance of estimated sales volume, the fact that it will affect the level of operating activities and amount of resources needed for operations, the possibility that managers may use sales forecasts, and is the foundation that other budgets are developed upon.
The production budget is a detailed plan showing the number of units a company must produce to meet budgeted sales and inventory levels. Production managers use this information to plan for the materials and human resources that production activities will require. To prepare a production budget, managers must know the budgeted number of sales (units) from the sales budget, and the desired level of ending finished goods inventory for each period in the budget year.
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all right welcome to master budgets the first concrete step in profit planning a master budget is a business plan with numbers for the entire company let's learn more we will learn to make all kinds of budgets in this chapter but first let's review our definition of budgets budgets are plans of action that match a company's goals with available resources companies usually make budgets that reflect what the company aims to accomplish in the next year many companies divide their annual budgets into four quarters but it's originated in the planning stage and are tied to the company's long term and short term goals however planning is of no use unless but its are compared with actual performance to identify the causes of waste as well as savings and take corrective action for future budgets serve many useful purposes in an organization let's take a quick look firstly budgets define goals that can serve as benchmarks for evaluating future performance moreover buttons communicate management's plan throughout the company and promote coordination by integrating plans of various subunits by setting performance standards budgets motivate employees to work in the best interest of the company since budgets look into the future they can help identify bottlenecks meaning constraints and other problems before they occur for example a company leading higher amount of raw material in highly seasoned might want to look for additional suppliers in advance or look for specialized labor or consultants before the need arises but it's also got the resources of the company to those subunits when they can be used most effectively and finally companies can manage their cash flow better if they know in advance about how much they water and how much ever need to borrow and when most episode of a company is a masterful difference I don't mean types of budgets operating budgets and financial budgets operating budgets are used in daily operations and become the basis for financial budgets which are projections of financial future results for the company we will see all these types of budgets in more detail let us take a look at interrelationships between different projects all planning begins with a sales budget which shows what the company expects to sell and at what price all other parts of the master budget are based on the sales budget production budget is prepared next since manufacturing companies have inventories for various reasons a company's sales project need not be equal to its production budget the production budget will show the number of units that must be produced in the budget field once budget a production budget tells us how many units must be produced we can prepare direct material direct labor and manufacturing overhead budgets which can help us prepare budgets for ending inventory and a budget for cost of goods sold once we are done with all the budgets relating to manufacturing costs we can prepare a setting an administrative cost budget using the sales numbers after all expenses are taken care of we are ready to prepare the budgeted income statement after income statement comes the cash budget which shows the details of where the cash will come from and when and where it will be used during the budget period cash budget is influenced by all types of operating budgets in the company and also by capital expenditures forget the last step of this long process is to prepare a budgeted balance sheet using all of the budgeted sorry using almost all of the budgets we have prepared above you will learn to make all these budgets one by one let's get ready a sales budget tells us how many units of each product we can sell in future and at what price so simply speaking it is an estimate of future sales revenue sales budget is made before any other budget because we must know what we can sell before we can start buying and making stuff since a company's budget is as good as its sales forecast companies may use past sales numbers or develop sophisticated sales forecasts techniques to arrive and positive units and prices once we know the units to be sold we can decide how much production to do how much material to buy etc without further delay let us make a sales budget so we have this murder of company here which has estimated unit sales for five months and the price at which they will be sold we need a sales budget for the quarter ending June 30th meaning we need sales of April May and June only to catch total estimated sales for the quarter are you wondering why you are given July and all the sales numbers you will get down sir very soon so all we need to do is to multiply the budgeted sales units by the price per unit and they are done let us see so here I just repeated the question from the previous slide so that you have it when you are solving for the sales budget so a quarter has three months total April May and June Series in units times price per unit and you were done you can copy these numbers or print out the slide for future reference since we will be using these numbers again a production budget shows how many units the company would be making each month you might think why this is not equal to what the company can sell this is because company's wants to keep a little more than exact sales needs to minimize the probability of stock run out in case a sudden rush Demond or any other emergency comes production budget becomes the basis for buying raw material labor consultants and other ingredients for future production so to make a production budget we need to know what we can sell and what we want to keep in our ending inventory so before we make an actual production budget it is useful to pull something out of our memory of the cost flow chapter remember we said that in any inventory account there are two items on the debit side beginning inventory plus what comes into the account and two items are on the credit side ending inventory and what goes out of the riccati naturally debits and credits right must equal each other we can rearrange this equation to solve for what must be added to the inventory like this now think about the current context of production account what is the condition to this account naturally what we will add by producing and what goes out of this economy what goes out of this account is the units that are to be sold so we can reinterpret our general equation to solve any problem of production budget so for Murdoch company we are given some additional information about desired ending inventory and beginning inventory for the quarter remember we need two things to make a production budget budget in sales and desired ending inventory you were given sales information before for the sales budget so here I just copied it down in case you do not have it remember all the examples are based on our common information about world or company now we can start making the production budget so we get budgeted sales units either from our original problem or from the sales budget we have already paid in the table we have three months and a column for the quarter we start with sales needs for each month and our desired ending inventory which is supposed to 20% of the next ones positive sales in units so the red arrow between 4,000 and 20,000 shows that 4,000 is 20% of 20,000 similarly 6000 is 20% of 30,000 the next month's positive seats now look at desired ending inventory of 7,000 in June column where did that come from actually it is just 20% of next month's sales go back and look at the expected sales of July given in the original problem July sales or 35,000 and 7000 in June column is 20% of July's expected sales once we know how much we need for sales and inventory we should be done but wait we have two important things to do before we move on the first is although we know how much we need each month we already have some of it in the beginning inventory beginning inventory of any month must be 20% of this month sales needs by our rule so ending inventory of March 31st becomes the beginning inventory of April 1st and ending inventory of April becomes the beginning inventory of me and so on so the red arrows going down from four thousand to four thousand and six thousand to six thousand just show the ending inventory of previous month copied down as the beginning inventory of next order one more thing to notice is that the quarter column in the table is not a blind total of the first three columns in all cases sure the first number in the corners column is a total of the three but the second number of desired in the ending inventory is not a total why because we need the ending inventory on June 30th which is the end of the quarter and not the total of all three months similarly we need to put down the beginning inventory for the water smartly because beginning inventory for the quarter is inventory on April first not the total of all three months this is an important point and students often make mistakes here so let's go over the column for the quarter once again first number is total budget in units for the water second number is ending inventory on June 30th and not the total and forth number in beginning inventory is inventory on April 1st and not the total so don't be in a hurry to total up all the columns if you are with me so far and notice one more thing and that is the table we have used uses the same equation we have let's go through some examples here we are given some information about cheap chairs we have the company's manufacturing cost and inventories the first question is to make a sales budget for 2012 for sales budget we need the units to be sold and the price at which they will be sold we have had information the very first sentence of the problem so our answer should be 20,000 units times price per unit $50 that's easy next question is to make a production budget for that we would need to know our projected sales and the desired inventory using our simple formula for additions to inventory we should get 20,000 shares and expectancy is minus ending inventory of 2,500 units I'm sorry 20,000 shares in expected sales plus desired ending inventory of 2,500 units minus beginning inventory of 2,000 units will give us twenty thousand five hundred years to be produced in 2012 not bad huh final question is to figure out cost of goods sold remember cost of goods sold is number of units to be sold times manufacturing cost per unit since we are planning to sell 20,000 units and our manufacturing cost is 10 dollars of material per unit $18 of labor and $2 of manufacturing overhead combining them we have 20,000 times 30 as our cost of goods sold everybody with me so far here we have to figure out what she isn't sure would be given the production numbers remember we normally start with sales budget and then go to production budget but here we have to go rehearse but it doesn't matter if you are using her equation method so we will start with our formula and rearrange it to find units sold so we plug in the inventory desired at the end of June which is 20% of July sales and just solve for X you can use this technique even if beginning or ending inventory is missing just rearrange the formula and solve for the unknown happy saw
We show you how to get rid of white flies and aphids organically and easily in your garden without the use of any insecticides or pesticides. Products used:
hello friends in today's episode it will see how to control white flies white flies are white colored insects that feed on your plants and are really a menace in your garden because they carry diseases the first method will see it to get rid of white lies is to just use water this hibiscus plant was infested with white flies and all I did was just uses a water hose and just hosed it down made sure all the white flies from the plant were removed and the underside of the leaves were the most affected so make sure that when you're using this method make sure you check all the underside of the leaves and then use a hose and water to just spray down and remove all the whitefly larvae eggs as well as the white flies themselves this method works great when you have a large area that's infected for example this hibiscus plant was pretty much all infested with white flies now sometimes you might have leaves that are very infested with white flies eggs as well as larvae as well as the white flies themselves so its easiest to just toss them out and throw them the second method that will see today to control white flies is to use a yellow sticky trap now this method works really well because white flies get attracted to the yellow color and the go towards it and get stuck and it works great for all your vegetable crops and it does really a good job because it not only captures whiteflies but can also capture aphids so as you can see here I've tied this yellow sticky traps next to my tomato plants and by making sure that white flies are not around you can ensure healthy vegetables that are growing on your plants without any diseases Now the problem with the white flies is that they carry diseases from one plant to the other and really infest your garden very quickly so this yellow sticky trap works really well for this purpose And the final method we will be seeing today is by using a product called Castile soap this product is made by dr bronners and is available for a pretty cheap price to use the Castile soap, you first need the product itself which is natural and organic very safe to use in your garden and you also need to use a sprayer like this and which you will be mixing the soap so what you basically do is open up your sprayer and then add about a tablespoon of this Castile soap you don't need to be very perfect with it just an iron to a bar a tablespoon and then add some water very slowly you do not want to create a lot of froth in the your sprayer before you spray see some aphids that have infested this kohlrabi plant and this method is the same whether you're using it for white lies or aphids the castile soap works very well and as you can see we are spraying all over this plant using the Castile oil soap spray its pretty easy you spray thoroughly and this takes care of most of the soft-bodied insects like whiteflies and aphids so I hope you liked this episode and I'd like to know from your YouTubers how you control your insects in your garden how do you control white flies, aphids or maybe other soft-bodied insects do let me know and I'll see you again soon happy gardening!
Cash Is King: Part 1 – Saving vs. Investing
BOOST RETURNS on liquid capital without giving up access to cash:
They say that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Likewise, savings is magical, beautiful, powerful, but only for the person with the eyes to see its worth.
When I have savings – cash in my control that I can use – I’m more relaxed and confident. I’m infinitely more creative when I’m safe and at ease. I’m able to direct all my energy to producing, taking action to create the next thing instead of protecting and hiding out in fear of losing everything. If it doesn’t work out, I’m not going to crash and burn. It’s like the solid foundation beneath my feet that keeps me progressing instead of slipping backward.
When you save money, you keep it. You’re not seeking high returns. You don’t put it at risk. You can save money under the mattress, in a coffee can buried in the backyard, in the bank. No matter where you save, unless you spend it or it gets stolen, you aren’t losing your money. Saved money is safe money that is guaranteed to never go down in value.
Contrast this with investing. When you invest, you’re looking for returns. You take on risk with the hope to get a return. With the risk, you get the potential for growth of your money, but also the potential for loss. Invested money has a risk of loss, and can go down in value.
Enter the 1980s hype of the 401(k), where you could “save” for retirement and get returns too. You could also “save taxes”, but we’ll leave the tax issue completely off the table until another episode. If you put aside just $200/month for 45 years, at an expected 8% return, you could turn your account into over a million dollars.
Problem is, people came to learn that there were times when they put their money in, did all of the right things, but the market still mercilessly washed away their life savings as indiscriminately as the waves of the ocean wash away sandcastles built on the shoreline.
If you put your money at risk, it’s not saving, it’s investing. You can never apply compound interest principles to an investment because you’ll never see consistent, predictable returns.
And hoping to be lucky and not lose will only cause your blood pressure to rise over things that you can’t control, like when the bottom dropped out and the S&P 500 lost 57%, more than half of its value, in the 2 years from 2007 to 2009.
The rule of thumb is this: if it can lose value, it’s not savings. This disqualifies anything in the stock market, whether its mutual funds inside a 401(k), 403(b), IRA, or Roth IRA, and even equity in your home.
Years and years of putting money away where you have the potential for loss can never guarantee you a certain future, and any expectation of that actually working out in your favor is built on false hope and absolving of responsibility.
So while most people are busy believing the marketing and following the rules, investing in their retirement plans automatically with payroll deductions, and only saving if there happens to be enough left over, the ultra-wealthy who’ve transcended the system are doing just the opposite.
The successful prioritize saving. So much so, that they save automatically. Why? Because they have boring, predictable money that they can count on to be there when they are ready to make a deliberate investing decision in the right opportunity, such as buying assets at a deep discount during a time of crisis. Instead of investing on autopilot and saving when they can, they are saving automatically and investing intentionally.
Savings is like the safety net beneath the acrobats at the circus. With the buffer between the tightropes and the floor, the artists can confidently demonstrate the skill they’ve mastered. Without the safety net, they’d never scale the heights that they do.
It’s time to revive your savings, and reawaken to the power it has in allowing you to live a truly free life, not just in the future, but right now, where it counts. Because living free to be your most productive, creative, highest potential version of yourself today is the only way to set up for an amazing tomorrow.
To start prioritizing your savings, here’s what you can do today:
1) Write down any accounts where you are holding money
2) Go down the list and ask yourself these questions:
A) Does this account have the potential to go down in value? If so, it’s an investment.
B) Is it liquid and accessible?
IF you are weighted towards money at risk, turn the tables – set your savings to auto-deposit, every paycheck, and be ok staying in cash until not only a good opportunity but precisely the right opportunity, surfaces.
hi this is Rachel Marshall today I want to talk with you about reviving your savings you know over and over as I have conversations with people about their financial life I realize that they have fallen into the trap that almost all of us have that we have prioritized investing over saving now there's something really clear to distinguish the two that's often missed savings is a place where we store money that is guaranteed it is safe money and it's guaranteed to not go down in value investing on the other hand is something that has a risk tied to it so it has potential to grow but there's also the potential for loss now a lot of times people who are being planful and conscientious and they feel like they're making the best decisions that they can they're putting money aside for the future they feel like they're saving but they actually are turning out that they're investing so as you put money into qualified plans things like 401 KS 403 B's IRAs Roth IRAs and even equity in your home you're not saving but you're investing because the value of that account has a potential to go down so if you're looking at your accounts and you say well I have to be afraid of what the stock market will do because that could impact my money that I have stored somewhere that means that you haven't saved you've invested now I'm not against investing but the foundation has to be saving first because there's no way that you will be able to take advantage of opportunity unless you have a Opportunity Fund of savings now here is something really interesting if you look at the people who are ultra wealthy they have made savings a priority and they're automatically saving every single month a portion of their income when they make investing decisions they're investing purposefully and deliberately they're thinking through their options and choices and they're not just blanket money out into the investment world they're investing strategically now on the other hand most Americans are investing automatically with paycheck deductions and having money put into investment accounts that have the potential for loss and they're saving if they get the chance to do so at the end of the month if there's money left over and so what we look at is this great disparity between the amount of savings and the not investing where most people have a tremendously full investing tank and almost nothing in savings now we're gonna dig into a little bit more why savings is such a priority how to prioritize this and how to focus on this but the first thing that you can take is action steps today would be to list out all of the accounts of where you're holding money this could be a savings account CDs the stock market could be your 401k or your Roth IRA even the equity in your house as I mentioned earlier lists all of those accounts and say does this have the ability to go down in value or will it hold it's worth once you've done that go through the list again and say is this an automatic deduction is this something that I'm automatically having put into this account or is it something that I have to think through every month and what you want to do is set up your decisions today to match what the ultra-wealthy are doing so that you can gain control of your finances because I believe your money is much better in your control in your hands where you're deliberately investing thank you so much I'll see you next time and we'll talk more about savings Thanks hi this is Rachel I hope you enjoyed this episode of money secrets if you did like this video subscribe to our Channel and leave a comment below I would like to invite you to get your free cash flow generator to help you start keeping more of your money come on over to Marshalls insurance.com slash cashflow generator to sign up